tunnel Photo: Metropolitan Transportation Authority / Patrick Cashin

Megaprojects and Historic Environments: a Sustainable Road Map to MegaLegacy?

Conference Session at European Association of Archaeologists conference, August 2023

Session organisers: Emily Plunkett (High Speed Two – HS2WSP) – Ronan Swan (Transport Infrastructure Ireland) – Kenneth Aitchison (Landward ResearchFederation of Archaeological Managers and Employers: FAMEUniversity of Liverpool) – Enda O‘Flaherty (Rubicon HeritageRed River Archaeology) – Karin Wink (Arcadis Netherlands) – Holger Schweitzer (Jacobs, Suedlink) – Colm Moloney (Rubicon Heritage)


Megaprojects are transformational temporary engineering projects, characterized by large investment, vast complexity, and long-lasting impact on the economy, environment, and society.

This session, organised by: Landward ResearchTIIArcadis NetherlandsHS2Rubicon HeritageJacobs, and Red River Archaeology, will examine the interconnectivity between infrastructure projects and finite heritage resource.

Examples of megaprojects include: the TII programme, Suedlink, Canal Seine Nord Europe, Heathrow T5, HS2, Dike reinforcement Afsluitdijk, LUAS Dublin, and ViA15 Highway Netherlands.

However, projects which leave mega-legacy don’t have to be mega in size. Smaller agile investigations can also yield mega-impact.

Such projects provide the opportunity to continually improve on:

  • Innovation
  • Sustainability and green procurement
  • Cross disciplinary cooperation
  • Practice and management
  • Holistic approaches to heritage (landscape, monuments, geography)
  • Learning lessons and seeking opportunities for improvement


These opportunities should allow for long-term sustainable transformation of our industry and heritage management by building skills, capacity, and inter-institutional communication while also conserving heritage infrastructure and landscapes.

Many megaprojects will be publicly funded and as such pressure is always present to ensure value and sustainable outcomes for the people who are both funding and benefiting from the project. Long term change can be challenging to affect even through the largest projects and often there is a need to recognise the benefits derived will be realised in the future. These pressures drive innovation and the adaption of new approaches to manage the challenges and scale of these projects.


Bearing this in mind:

  • How do we deliver our works to maximise our impact?
  • How can we understand the challenges and opportunities of megaprojects?

This session invites papers which examine the practice and management of delivering sustainable heritage works or which offer case studies about:

  • Approaches before or during investigation programmes
  • Lessons learnt
  • Challenges and how these were overcome
  • Threats and opportunities of sustainable heritage


Abstract author(s): Lawson, John (City of Edinburgh Council; ALGAO:UK)

This paper explores the archaeology of the Trams to Newhaven project, managed by the City of Edinburgh Council Archaeology Service and undertaken by GUARD Archaeology between 2019 & 2023. This City of Edinburgh Council project is the culmination of the Edinburgh Trams programme (instigated in 2003) which has seen the construction of a new light rail line linking Edinburghs airport in the west, through the city centre, to its port of Leith in the north.

The project has proven to be one of the largest and most controversial infrastructure projects ever undertaken in Scotland, which has been constantly and literally in the public eye, given its urban location. However, the programme has uncovered nationally important archaeological remains none more so than during the current project which has provided new evidence for the ports Napoleonic defences, the 19th century cable tram system and most significantly the excavation of a section of South Leith Parish Churchs medieval kirkyard undertaken whilst dealing with the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Abstract author(s): Zoldoske, Teagan – Green, Katie (University of York; Archaeology Data Service)

Over the past three years the Archaeology Data Service (ADS) has been undertaking the long-term preservation and dissemination of the digital data from the archaeological investigations undertaken as part of the UKs High Speed 2 (HS2) railway infrastructure development project. It is estimated that the HS2 project will deposit 15 TB of data in total; this is by far the largest single project dataset ever deposited with the ADS. The vast scale of the dataset and the complex nature in which the data was collected by multiple different archaeological sub-contractors brings with it both challenges and great opportunities.

This paper will look at the challenges that ADS has faced preserving, disseminating and aggregating such a large and disparate dataset. Highlighting the lessons ADS has learnt as a result of the challenges faced, and reporting on how these lessons are being integrated into the next stages of the HS2 project. This paper will finish by looking forward to how the legacy of HS2 and the lessons learnt will reach beyond the HS2 project to benefit future projects of any scale.


Abstract author(s): Schneider, Jan – Misterek, Daniel (SPAU GmbH)

SuedLink, as a key infrastructure project of the German Energiewende, involves the construction of the longest underground power cable of the world with a length of more than 700 km across five federal states from northern to southern Germany, crossing five federal states. This technically demanding project is also to be considered a mega-project from an archaeological point of view. SPAU GmbH has been commissioned by TransnetBW GmbH since 2020 to carry out preparatory archaeological work in the approximately 60 km long section through the federal state of Hesse.

In the course of this work, the evaluation of remote sensing and archive data, the planning and execution of non-invasive surveys, the archaeological monitoring of the subsoil investigations and the planning of invasive surveys have been carried out in several stages so far. The work was always carried out with the involvement of the client, the heritage management and the engineers in order to profitably incorporate the results into the technical design of the cable trenches.

The presentation by the two project managers Jan Schneider and Daniel Misterek will provide an overview of the work carried out, the methods used and the cooperation between the various parties involved. It will also address the opportunities and challenges of commercial archaeology in the working environment of such a mega-project.


Abstract author(s): Collard, Mark (Red River Archaeology; Infra JV)

Infra JV (Rubicon Heritage (Red River Archaeology) and Network Archaeology) worked as an archaeological contractor on the HS2 Enabling Works Contract Archaeological Framework for Phase 1 Central, the largest single archaeological delivery project in the UK to date.

Working for Fusion JV on behalf of HS2 Ltd from 2018 to 2022 Infra JV successfully delivered 20 individual mitigation works packages across 35 separate sites, to a value of 20 million delivering more than 1100 evaluation trial trenches, 24 ha of mitigation excavation, 2500 test pits, and more than 75 post-excavation reports. All works were delivered to HS2 Technical Standards including the Historic Environment Research Design Strategy (HERDS), working closely with the clients archaeological and engineering teams. We developed a strong systematised, experienced management and organisational structure to specifically deliver HS2 related works to the required high quality.

The project required new ways of working, to different scales of operation for the archaeological contractors involved, with new responsibilities and requirements. Flexibility, mobility and innovation for organisational cultures and structure proved essential. Uninterrupted delivery of most of the main works through the Covid 19 pandemic brought additional challenges to traditional ways of working.

The project could only be delivered through collaboration, breaking down traditional barriers between actors and stakeholders in the archaeological process, and working across the client/contractor/sub-contractor commercial relationships to ensure that the key aim was met – the best quality archaeological work, delivered to time and budget.

Trust and respect across the whole team were vital to that and a Right first time culture was fundamental.

We will examine what had to change to make this happen, staff development and growth, the lessons learnt (good and the less good), how the whole was greater than the sum of its parts and show the exceptional quality of the archaeological results obtained.


Abstract author(s): Swan, Ronan (TII)

In the context of Transport Infrastructure Irelands (TII) experience on national road and public transport projects, TII has developed a nuanced and purposeful approach to the management of archaeology and heritage, which recognises the legislative and regulatory context, the need to manage risk, and the fundamental importance of building public trust.

This presentation will briefly outline TIIs approach to archaeology and heritage, with a particular focus on ensuring that heritage works are delivered to a high standard throughout the lifespan of a project and that the results are accessible to different audiences ranging from the local community to international researchers.

It will then concentrate on some of the impacts from TIIs programme of works in terms of:

 providing a sustainable model and template for the management of archaeology and heritage, through the development of standards, guidelines, and contracts,

 improving our understanding and knowledge of particular periods and particular site types,

 creating structured approaches to the dissemination of these results, and,

 enabling significant research, either through TIIs own research initiatives, collaborative projects, or making data available to major research projects.

Collectively, these impacts provide a model for realising a Mega Legacy.


Abstract author(s): Sundet, Nils Ole (Agder county council) – Meling, Trond (Museum of Archaeology, University

of Stavanger) – Aasboe, Malin Kristin (Rogaland County Council) – Stokke, Jo-Simon (The Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo) – Vivas, Arild (Stavanger Maritime Museum) – Nymoen, Pal (The Norwegian Maritime Museum)

To improve the road standard and to reduce traveling time between Stavanger and Kristiansand in the southwestern part of Norway, the construction of a new highway is under planning. The development of part of the road have been selected as a project arena to test how archaeological investigations and the protection of cultural heritage interests could be done more efficient, more predictable, and in an early stage of the planning process. A close collaboration within the culture heritage administrations, which includes four museums, two county councils and the Directorate for Cultural Heritage, and between these administrations and the public road developer, have been essential to fulfil the objectives of the project. The project began in 2019 and so far, there have been four seasons of fieldwork, mainly surveys.

The project area is ca. 125 km long and nearly 400 m wide. It is located to the interior of the counties of Rogaland and Agder, within a landscape characterized by forests, valleys, and heaths. Previously, only a handful archaeological investigations had been caried out in this area, and few archaeological sites were recorded. Hence, our knowledge of the prehistoric settlement was scarce before the project started.

In this paper, we will present the expectations and the strategies of the project, how we have collaborated to achieve the goals of the project, and our experiences of doing cultural heritage management within the project.


Abstract author(s): Higham, Richard (University of Brighton; SEAHA Centre for Doctoral training) – Carey, Chris (University of Brighton) – Corcoran, Jane (Historic England) – Brolly, Matthew – Cole, James (University of Brighton) – Knight, David (Trent & Peak Archaeology)

Currently in UK developer led archaeology, systematic evaluation trenching is the most commonly employed evaluation technique. The destructive sampling of trenching is used to gain information on, and prospect for, any archaeology in a given area. Trenching is employed at different coverages across Europe and different trenching configurations though all trenches sample a site in the hope of detecting significant archaeology within an area.

By using a GIS model of different evaluations simulating evaluations over real site data it is possible to better understand what types of archaeology present practice is likely to be missing and what types of archaeology are we more likely to find, potentially biasing our understanding of the archaeological record. The modelling approach presented here aims to provide greater certainty and understanding about the results of the varying practices currently employed in developer led archaeological evaluation. By comparing the simulations of evaluation trenching over large scale development plans which include significant monuments it is possible to begin to answer questions about how best to use different archaeological evaluation trenching techniques in an evaluation of a proposed development area.

This will allow us to advise for the creation of better evaluation practices in the future.


Abstract author(s): Coldrick, Bryn (Archaeological Management Solutions; Transport Infrastructure Ireland)

Transport Infrastructure Ireland (TII) is in the process of implementing new Cultural Heritage Impact Assessment (CHIA) guidance and standards to replace the 2005 National Roads Authority (NRA) guidelines for the assessment of archaeological heritage and architectural heritage impacts of National Road Schemes. Archaeological Management Solutions (AMS) has been working with TII on this important initiative, which has involved extensive consultation both internally within TII and with a wide range of external stakeholders.

The new, more detailed guidance and standards for the assessment of the impacts on Cultural Heritage address archaeological heritage, built heritage and intangible heritage. They set out the expected requirements for undertaking CHIA and the production and delivery of Cultural Heritage outputs for inclusion with Constraints Reports, Option Selection Reports, Environmental Impact Assessment Reports and/or Environmental Reports for TII Projects.

In this presentation, AMS will provide an overview of the new guidance and standards and their key requirements. This presentation is an important opportunity for Cultural Heritage Professionals to find out how TII has undertaken this major review of their Cultural Heritage guidelines, and become familiar with their new requirements.


Abstract author(s): Bishop, Lara – Lucey, Donal (Arcadis) – Dickinson, Ed (Jacobs)

The Lower Thames Crossing (LTC) is a National Highways project to improve the strategic road network with a new crossing of the River Thames east of London. In 2022 the project submitted its Development Consent Order application to the Planning Inspectorate.

The LTC has adopted a holistic approach in many aspects of the project. Well discuss this in relation to three examples:

 Dedicated environmental coordinators have oversight of several related environmental topics, this aided in avoiding siloed working particularly between the cultural heritage, biodiversity and landscape and visual teams.

This enabled us to ensure that any potential conflicts in mitigation between topics were picked up as early as possible and lent weight to our design review, which aided in producing collaborative working with the engineering and design teams on the project.

 To inform the environmental impact assessment for cultural heritage an extensive programme of archaeological evaluation was undertaken in 2019  2021. The results of this enabled an understanding of the archaeological baseline on a landscape scale. This enhanced understanding fed back into the iterative design process.

 The lasting benefit and social value of the project  working with heritage stakeholders outside their planning role, charities and voluntary groups to identify where the project can add value to other heritage initiatives and contribute to social value. This has led to financial support for over 20 heritage projects.


Abstract author(s): Geary, Kate (Chartered Institute for Archaeologists)

It is 2015. The UK archaeology sector is starting to show signs of recovery following the crash of 2008, although it has lost a lot of its workforce. The Westminster government is ‘spending its way out of recession by investing in a programme of infrastructure development. We are worried that there wont be enough archaeologists to undertake the programmes of work that will be required. But we have also identified a unique opportunity to work together as a sector to tackle strategically long-term problems in skills and employment.

So what did we do about it? Eight years later, and with many of those programmes of work still ongoing, have we effected a strategic transformation in the arena of skills and capacity? Did we miss the opportunity or is it still a work in progress? This paper will reflect on the progress weve made and take a critical look at the challenges involved in delivering change. It will consider the barriers the sector has faced and what needs to happen to ensure that mega projects deliver mega impact and legacy.


Abstract author(s): Plunkett, Emily (HS2)

As heritage professionals we all know that a holistic approach to the assessment of the historic environment using its three pillars (archaeology, built heritage, and historic landscapes) is critical to project success and robust assessment.

But do we apply this thinking to our teams or ourselves?

During the drafting of the Phase 2b (Crewe to Manchester) Environmental Statement we integrated a high functioning team dynamic into assessment via the progressive assurance approach (developed by ARUP as part of the HS2 project). This was part of the larger one team collaboration.

For the historic environment team this saw the adoption of a holistic approach team focused approach to assessment which integrated:

 Data analysis using a database;

 Consultation and collaboration with stakeholders;

 Integrating risk/archaeological potential considerations into our assessment; and

 Assuring assessments for all three pillars of the historic environment through inter-organisational collaboration.

The outcomes of this approach were:

 Rapid skills development;

 Rapid team formation;

 Increased knowledge sharing; and

 Tangible skills gain.

This paper will discuss and examine the Progressive Assurance approach which led to the rapid development of a high functioning team with direct effect on the quality of the historic environment assessment.


Abstract author(s): McKeague, Peter (Historic Environment Scotland)

Project archives are a fundamental legacy of archaeological fieldwork from individual research to large scale multi-disciplinary infrastructure projects. Data is expensive to collect, unique in character, and for destructive processes, an irreplaceable record of those investigations. Issues of archive deposition and long term preservation aside, how reusable are digital data created by multiple practitioners, working across the spectrum of archaeological fieldwork?

By their nature archives classify and compartmentalise depositions ensuring easy retrieval with researchers working across discrete collections but archival practices hinder effective reuse within the wider geospatial environment. In Britain online reporting through OASIS has introduced some curatorial data standards to project archaeology. Users of the system are also encouraged to share the spatial extents of projects to update inventory systems. However, more sophisticated use of born digital data maybe compromised by non-deposition of data, preservation in the wrong format and the lack of agreed, published data standards and vocabularies.

The need for standardised approaches is pressing. The United Kingdom government established The Geospatial Commission in 2018 to accelerate the delivery of economic, social and environmental benefits derived from geospatial data, products and services across the private and public sector. A key infrastructure project is the National Underground Asset Register designed to collate and share underground infrastructure data from utilities. Buried archaeology is an important but neglected aspect of that environment. 

With the volume and sophistication of fieldwork undertaken each year existing curatorial and archival approaches to data are ill-prepared to contribute meaningfully to the wider geospatial environment. This presentation calls for the development of consistent and transparent data standards across the spectrum of fieldwork techniques  and collaboration on megaprojects is an important step in that process  in conjunction with data curators to realise that potential in the context of a rapidly evolving geospatial infrastructure.


Abstract author(s): OFlaherty, Enda (Rubicon Heritage)

The all island Strategic Rail Review commissioned by the Department of Transport (Republic of Ireland) and The Department of Infrastructure (Northern Ireland) will set forth proposals for the rejuvenation and reinstatement of railways across the island of Ireland over the coming decades. This ambitious all- island endeavour will present new and unique challenges in the area of Cultural Heritage Management.

Accommodating largescale sustainable infrastructure projects presents both threats to, and mitigation opportunities in the area of Cultural Heritage Management, as much of the required infrastructure must be intertwined with existing infrastructure that is of historical, architectural, and cultural heritage significance. This circumstance is exceptional and presents challenges to how we can manage the non-renewable cultural resources of our urban and rural environments,

integrate rail with the living city and countryside, and still facilitate the journey to sustainable living.

Policies and practices in relation to the protection of the cultural heritage must be implemented while accommodating policies and practices that strive toward a sustainable future. This circumstance represents potential conflict between directives which facilitate the preservation of cultural heritage, and those directives which strive toward a greener future.

What have we learned to date about this delicate interface? What threats and opportunities does railway construction and rejuvenation pose to the historic environment, both urban and rural? What happens when environmental protection policy and cultural protection policy clash?

The answers to these questions may be probed and sometimes answered through previous experience e.g. the re-instatement and rehabilitation of past mega-projects such as canal infrastructure (Waterways Ireland), the rejuvenation of former railway lines as greenways (Mallow-Dungarvan), the excavation and rejuvenation of former docklands (Broadstone harbour), and the integration of new railway with historic streetscapes (Luas Dublin). From this starting point, what have we learned that can improve our work in the future?


Abstract author(s): Schweitzer, Holger (Jacobs/ SuedLink)

Renewable energy: as much as possible as fast as possible, is the currently political demand of the day in Europe.

Accordingly, Germany`s targets for the transition from fossil to renewable energies, too, are ambitious and increasingly accelerated as a result of the current geopolitical and economic situation. With a length of more than 700 km Suedlink is currently the largest project of the German national energy transformation plan with electricity envisaged to flow through the underground cables by 2028.

Accelerating planning and consent procedures also means exploring new avenues for managing and protecting cultural heritage in compliance with multiple federal laws. To meet this challenge, the SuedLink Archaeology team are forging new ways to ensure compliance and improve methods so that overall project targets are met (or even improved on).

A key role in this regard is continuous, transparent and target group-orientated communication. Designing out impacts, agreeing archaeological mitigation measures, or negotiating their integration into the construction process requires a well-established and clear dialogue with engineers, senior project management, construction agents and a whole host of other key stakeholders. Establishing a mutual understanding of practical, technical, or legal requirements is vital for the creation of an environment of constructive cooperation for the projects delivery.

Furthermore, a holistic public outreach strategy is key to a successful mega-project delivery. This involves e.g. informing landowners on planned archaeological fieldwork well in advance of the fieldwork, or disseminating information to the public on archaeological findings. Fundamentally underlying to all project communication is a recognition of all cultural heritage, including archaeology, as a shared social valued and valuable public resource, and understanding that good practice not only meets the demands of good conservation management. It can simultaneously contribute to an accelerated project delivery with critical socio-political goals.


Abstract author(s): Aarsleff, Esben (Museum Nordsjalland)

In recent years The Museum of North Zealand has carried out large scale excavations prior the construction of a new superregional hospital and derived infrastructural, housing and industrial projects in a mosaic landscape dotted with smaller wetlands around the former inlake called Salpetermosen.

The excavations were initiated in 2012 and are still ongoing as the area is being developed over a long period of time.

The combined area (hospital and other projects) of investigation so far covers 3 km2, which by Danish standards, is a relatively large area. The finds comprise of sacrificial and profane use of wetlands, as well as settlements and villages from larger parts of the period between 4000 BC and 1560 AD.

Most of the constructers show a fundamental understanding of the time needed to make the excavations. Generally, they also want to benefit from the results in their branding, which is a tendency that began somewhat twenty years ago in North Zealand. The same goes for the local community, who take great interest in the many results, and they all consider the archaeology as a part of their shared past.

The archaeological results provide an identity for the landscape, which we need to communicate to the public, the developers and the municipality, if we want the identity to be part of the new townscape. Our effort is usually focused on the wellknown ways of branding archaeological results: Exhibitions, tours of the sites, open excavations, lectures, newspaper articles and so on. But we still havent found the right way of integrating the past identity in the present townscape. Perhaps we need to focus our energy on other solutions?


Abstract author(s): Gardner, Jonathan (Edinburgh College of Art, University of Edinburgh)

This paper reviews the varied roles that archaeology played in the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Even before Londons successful bid in 2005, the Games main site in Stratford was branded a wasteland and a scar across the city; this despite being home to hundreds of people, providing employment for ca. 5000 workers in 284 businesses, and hosting allotments and leisure facilities (Davies et al. 2017, p. 1). Following the sites compulsory purchase for construction in 2007, archaeologists (including myself) moved in to document parts of the 200ha area before its complete clearance. While this archaeological investigation was comprehensive for some areas and time periods, in this paper, I suggest that opportunities were missed for far greater engagement with the recent past and the contemporary inhabitants and users of the site. This program of development-led archaeology  carefully controlled by major environmental consultancies  arguably failed to challenge the simplistic wasteland narrative in favour of providing positive news stories for the mega projects organisers.

Presenting the result of a major investigation of the relationships between mega events and heritage (Gardner 2022), I suggest that re-excavating such projects engagement with archaeology is essential if we are to create richer and more heterogeneous understandings of the past, and to ensure the complexities of more recent history are not ignored in favour of older, safer, depoliticised stories.

 Davies, M., Davis, J., and Rapp, D., 2017. Dispersal: picturing urban change in east London. Swindon, UK: Historic England Publishing.

 Gardner, J., 2022. A Contemporary Archaeology of Londons Mega Events: From the Great Exhibition to London 2012. London: UCL Press. https://doi.org/10.14324/111.9781787358447


Abstract author(s): Timmermans, Luc – Mol, Koos (Arcadis)

In this paper we want to share how the contractor was motivated to integrate heritage in designing and renovating the Afsluitdijk. We want to address the factors we consider to be pivotal in this process, from the exploration phase until project execution.

In the 1930s, the existing discharge sluices on both sides of the Afsluitdijk were fortified with separate concrete bunkers and shelters. Both fortified positions were constructed around the sluices and made use of the existing dams, which was both strategic militarily and cost efficient. After a five-day battle in the Second World War, the positions remained their military importance in the beginning of the Cold War. The result is a relatively young but rich and layered cultural landscape with both archaeology and listed monuments.

The renovation of the Afsluitdijk in the Netherlands started in 2019 and encompassed not only the elevation of the existing dam, but also constructing a new set of sluices and pumps, next to the existing ones. The project for the renovation of the dam was issued by the Directorate-General for Public Works and Water Management of the Netherlands (Rijkswaterstaat) and has been tendered as a DBFM (Design, Build, Finance and Maintain) project. The challenge was to both preserve this site of national heritage and renovate the water works to make it future proof.

Prior to the tendering of the works, the government specified the room for adaptations and changes of the dam in legislation and in the tender conditions. It defined both restrictions and possibilities, for physical interventions. In that way the future contractor would have the freedom to come up with its own design solutions, but within a predefined framework. The contractor took this as an imperative to integrally incorporate heritage into the design process.


Abstract author(s): Toja, Sara – Silva, Elisangela (Arcadis – MG)

Brazil is known worldwide for its mining deposits mainly for the capture of iron, gold and its derivatives. For the execution of this type of work, mining dams are built, as a barrier, where the tailings are deposited, such construction constitutes the category of megaprojects of large companies that are established in Brazilian territory.

Our work since the beginning of these megaprojects is of major importance because we participate in the entire life cycle of the enterprise, with its challenges and opportunities, enabling the anticipation of problems. Projects of this dimension allow the use of digital solutions that facilitate the safeguarding of important data about cultural heritage, like Fulcrum and Memory Places developed by the digital team of Arcadis Brazil.

In 2020, five years after the dam burst in the city of Mariana, the law which establishes the National Dam Safety Policy (PNSB), was updated, in which cultural heritage is brought as part of the PAE (Emergency Action Plan) which must contain measures to rescue and safeguard cultural heritage.

In the specific case of the state of Minas Gerais, the legislation of the State Institute of Historical and Artistic Heritage (IEPHA) defines the procedures and studies that must be conducted to safeguard cultural heritage under the PAE, activated when a mining dam alerts to a level drive. Among the stages, there is the diagnosis of the material cultural heritage that should include, this document should also contain the identification of archaeological structures and other elements of preservation interest.

It is of major importance to carry out the diagnosis and cadastral survey of both material and immaterial assets to record the cultural heritage that is on the imminence being lost.

Share this post